Enver Pasha – the Ottoman Minister of War

(G. Bieber, Berlin)

Cemal Pasha – the Ottoman Minister of Fleet

(Piotr Nykiel's collection)

Cevat Pasha – the Ottoman commander of the Dardanelles Fortified Zone and the real author of its defense plan implemented during the Allied naval assault.

(Sébah & Joailler, Constantinople)

Cevat Pasha on a picture taken in 1915 in the Dardanelles.

(Harp Umumi Panoraması)

Capt. Muzaffer (Adil) – commander of Barbaros Hayrettin battleship which on March 6, 1915 engaged in combat with HMS Queen Elizabeth and damaged her.

(Piotr Nykiel's collection)

Lt. Hakkı – commander of Nusret minelayer. A copy of a painting by Peyhaman Duran exposed in the Naval Museum at Beşiktaş, Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

Capt. Hans Woermann - German commander of Fort Orhaniye (Fort No. 4) killed in action on February 19, 1915.


Commanders of four batteries in Fort Rumeli Mecidiye (Fort No. 13). The second from the left is Capt. Hilmi whose gun was mentioned as the one which sunk the French battleship Bouvet on March 18, 1915.

(Harp Umumi Panoraması)

Capt. Hacı Ramazan – an illiterate officer, who – according to the written sources – in mid March 1915 was responsible for transferring a 355 mm fortress gun from Fort Çimenlik (Fort No. 20) to Fort Anadolu Hamidiye (Fort No. 19) as well as for construction of concrete gun emplacements in (Rumeli) Mesudiye Battery (Fort No. 7) and for fixing the guns on them. We may also assume that the Dardanos (Fort No. 8) and Muin-i Zafer Batteries were built under his supervision. Most probably it was him too, who during the 1914/15 winter built a new gun emplacement in Fort Rumeli Meciciye (Fort No. 13) and transferd a gun there.

(Harp Umumi Panoraması)


Back to Commanders