355 mm L/35 Krupp Fortress Gun

Date of production: 1889
Caliber: 355 mm
Barrel length: 35 calibers
Firing range: 10800 m (with old type shell), 16900 m (with new type shell)
Shell weight: 725 kg (armor-piercing shell), 620 kg (high-explosive shell)
Barrel weight: 85 t
Carriage weight: 85 t
Carriage length: 8.40 m
Carriage rails’ diameter: 15.20 m

In the Dardanelles Fortified Zone used in: Anadolu Hamidiye (No. 19), Çimenlik (No.20) and Rumeli Hamidiye (No. 16) Forts.

A 355 mm L/35 Krupp gun in fort Anadolu Hamidiye (Fort No. 19). The picture was taken in the second half of 1880’s and comes from a big set of photographs ordered by sultan Abdülhamid II.

(Piotr Nykiel's collection)

The same type of gun (355/35) in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul. It is the only one, almost completely preserved big fortress gun from WWI period in Turkey. Almost the whole artillery armament of the Dardanelles Fortified Zone has been melt in 1960’s.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul. It is hard to understand why the Museum’s authorities continue to confuse the visitors with the statue of Corporal Seyit, as the sources leave no doubt that he has not carried the shells to a 355/35 but to a 240/35 gun.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 355/35 gun in Harbiye Military Museum in Istanbul.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)


280 mm L/22 Krupp Fortress Gun

Date of production: 1870’s
Caliber: 380 mm
Barrel length: 22 calibers
Firing range: 7600 m (with old type shell), 8000 m (with new type shell)
Shell weight: 199 kg (fragmentation shell), 233.5 kg (armor-piercing shell)

In the Dardanelles Fortified Zone used in: Kumkale (No. 6), Seddülbahir (No. 3) and Anadolu Mecidiye (No. 24) Forts.

One of two 280 mm L/22 Krupp guns on fixed carriages preserved near Küçük Anafarta village on Gallipoli Peninsula. Almost the same guns (but on rotating carriages) were deployed in the Dardanelles forts.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

One of two 280/22 Krupp guns on fixed carriages preserved near Küçük Anafarta village on Gallipoli Peninsula.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

Caliber, producer and date of production marks on the barrel of a 280/22 gun near Küçük Anafarta village on Gallipoli Peninsula.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 280 mm L/24 Krupp gun in Fort Sarı Kaya in Istanbul on a picture from the beginning of 20th century. Similar guns (but with shorter, L/22 barrel) were deployed in the Dardanelles.

(Piotr Nykiel's collection)


240 mm L/35 Krupp Fortress Gun

Date of production: 1880’s or later
Caliber: 240 mm
Barrel length: 35 calibers
Firing range: 11000 m (with old type shell), 14800 m (with new type shell)
Shell weight: 215 kg (fragmentation shell)

In the Dardanelles Fortified Zone used in: Ertuğrul (No. 1), Orhaniye (No. 4), Anadolu Hamidiye (No. 19), Namazgâh (No. 17) and Rumeli Mecidiye (No. 13) Forts.

A gun (presumably Corporal Seyit’s 240 mm L/35) in Fort Rumeli Mecidiye (Fort No. 13) just after March 18, 1915. Note the sandbags (to the left) covering the ripped off corner of the ammunition store.

(Piotr Nykiel's collection)

The same gun (as on te previous picture) while the shell is loaded.

(Harp Mecmuası)

The same gun with the battery commander Capt. Hilmi (on the left) and Lt. Fahri (on the right) posing in front. It is believed this gun sunk French battleship Bouvet.

(Wikipedia)

A 240 mm L/35 Krupp fortress gun brought in 2011 from Fort Yenikale in İzmir to Fort Rumeli Mecidiye in the Dardanelles. The figures (including statue of Corporal Seyit) suggest that the gun is exactly the one he operated. Although the gun is of the same type is was set up on the wrong gun emplacement (to see the right place of Seyit’s gun visit the bookmark related to Fort Rumeli Mecidiye at “Fortifications” section of this website).

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

The Ottoman inscription of Krupp factory on the barrel, including the production date of 1888.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

Beautifully preserved breech

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)
(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

Two 240 mm bottom-fuse shells

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 240 mm L/35 gun and a barrel of 150 mm L/45 naval gun from Rumeli Mesudiye Battery (Fort No. 7) exposed on Cumhuriyet Meydanı in Çanakkale.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A 240/35 gun and a barrel of 150/45 naval gun from Rumeli Mesudiye Battery (Fort No. 7) exposed on Cumhuriyet Meydanı in Çanakkale.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)


150 mm L/45 Vickers Naval Gun

Date of production: 1901
Caliber: 150 mm
Barrel length: 45 calibers
Firing range: 12000 m (with old type shell)
Shell weight: 45.4 kg (high-explosive shell)

In the Dardanelles Fortified Zone used in: (Rumeli) Mesudiye Battery (Fort No. 7).

A 150 mm L/45 gun from Mesudiye battleship placed on a concrete gun emplacement in front of Fort Orhaniye (Fort No. 4) after January 1916, maybe even as late as in 1936. Exactly the same guns have been used in (Rumeli) Mesudiye Battery (Fort No. 7) during the Dardanelles Campaign.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

The same gun as on the picture above.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

The same gun as on the picture above.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

The same gun as on the picture above.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)


150 mm L/26 Krupp Fortress Gun

Date of production: 1870's
Caliber: 150 mm
Barrel length: 26 calibers
Firing range: 7000 m (with shrapnel shell)
Shell weight: 35.5 kg (shrapnel shell)

In the Dardanelles Fortified Zone used in: Merkez (Sultan), Yıldız (No. 9) and Kumkale (No. 6) Forts.

Three 150 mm L/26 Krupp guns (most probably from Fort Merkez / Fort Sultan  at Bolayır) now exposed in the Naval Museum in Çanakkale.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

One of three 150 mm L/26 Krupp guns exposed in the Naval Museum in Çanakkale.

(Photo: Piotr Nykiel)

A ready to fire 150/26 gun in Fort Kara Ağaç (Edirne Fortified Zone) after the fall of Edirne in March 1913. The same guns were deployed in the Dardanelles.

(Libraire Oltcheff, Sofia - Piotr Nykiel's collection)


False Guns

Turkish written sources say about the use of the false artillery emplacements only in so-called howitzer area in the Dardanelles and at Bolayır. This photograph seems to be the only source which confirms that the false batteries existed also in the vicinity of forts, and even of those at the entrance to the Dardanelles. The emplacements shown on this picture were built several dozen meters to the East from Fort Ertuğrul (Fort No. 1). In their construction the Turks used carriages of old destroyed field guns mounted on the primitive concrete-stone-earth base. The barrels – shooting black powder cartridges – were presumably made of sewer pipes. The ruins of fort Seddülbahir and the village can be seen in the foreground. (Piotr Nykiel's collection)

 

Artillery